Abdul Razak

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For other individuals named Abdul Razak, or some variation thereof, see Abdul Razak (disambiguation).

This is a Malay name; the name "Dato' Hussein Al-Haj" is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by his or her given name, "Abdul Razak".

Yang Amat Berbahagia Tun
 Abdul Razak

Abdul Razak

2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia

In office
September 22, 1970 – January 14, 1976


Tun Dr. Ismail Abdul Rahman (1970 - 1973)

Tun Hussein Onn (1973 - 1976)

Preceded by

Tunku Abdul Rahman

Succeeded by

Hussein Onn

1st Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia

In office
1959 – 
September 22, 1970

Preceded by

post created

Succeeded by

Tun Dr. Ismail Abdul Rahman



March 11, 1922
Pekan, Pahang


January 14, 1976 (aged 53)
London, United Kingdom

Political party



Tun Rahah Tan Sri Noah

Alma mater

Malay College Kuala Kangsar
Raffles College





Tun Abdul Razak bin Haji Dato' Hussein Al-Haj (March 11, 1922-January 14, 1976) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1970 to 1976.

Tun Razak was the Prime Minister responsible in setting up Barisan Nasional, which is the ruling coalition of political parties that have held power in Malaysia till today, taking over from its predecessor, the Alliance. He is also renowned for launching the Malaysian New Economic Policy (MNEP).



[edit] Background

Born in Pulau Keladi, Pahang on March 11, 1922, Tun Razak is the first of two child to Dato' Hussein bin Mohd Taib and Hajah Teh Fatimah bt Daud. Of aristocratic descent, Abdul Razak studied at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar.

After joining the Malay Administrative Service in 1939, he was awarded a scholarship to study at Raffles College in Singapore in 1940. His studies at the college ceased with the onset of the Second World War. During the war he helped organize the Wataniah resistance movement in Pahang.[1]

After World War II, Tun Razak left for Britain in 1947 to study law. In 1950 he received a law degree and qualified as barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London. During his student days in England, Tun Razak was a member of the British Labour Party and a prominent student leader of the Kesatuan Melayu Great Britain (Malay Association of Great Britain). He also formed the Malayan Forum, an organisation for Malayan students to discuss their country's political issues.

[edit] Political Involvement

Upon his return from the United Kingdom, Tun Razak joined the Malayan Civil Service. Owing to his political caliber, he became the youth chief for United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). Two years later, he worked as the Assistant State Secretary of Pahang and in February 1955, at just 33 years of age, became Pahang's Chief Minister.

Razak stood in and won a seat in Malaysia's first general elections in July 1955 and was appointed as the Education Minister. Tun Razak was also a member of the February 1956 mission to London to seek the independence of Malaya from the British.

After the general elections in 1959, he became the Minister of Rural Development in addition to holding the portfolios of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence. His achievements include formulating the development policy known as the Red Book.

[edit] Prime Ministership

On September 1970, Tun Razak succeeded Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra as the Prime Minister of Malaysia.

After the May 13 Incident in 1969, his faction in UMNO overthrew Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra and imposed a State of Emergency, ruling by decree until 1970. On September 1970, Tun Razak succeeded Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra as the Prime Minister of Malaysia.

Tun Razak set up the Barisan Nasional or National Front on January 1, 1973 to replace the ruling Alliance Party. He increased the membership of its parties and coalitions in an effort to establish "Ketahanan Nasional" (National Strength) through political stability.

Tun Razak is also renowned for launching the Malaysian New Economic Policy (MNEP) in 1971. He and the "second generation" of Malay politicians saw the need to tackle vigorously the economic and social disparities which fuelled racial antagonism. The MNEP set two basics goals - to reduce and eventually eradicate poverty, and to reduce and eventually eradicate identification of economic function with race.

[edit] Infusing Young Blood

At the time of Separation of Singapore from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965, Tun Razak realised that UMNO needed more young leaders in the party. Faced with, amongst other things Lee Kuan Yew’s considerable rhetorical skills, Razak wanted young Malay leaders – grounded in their own faith and culture – who would be able to speak and if necessary debate both in the Malay language and English language.

He also wanted young men and women who would be equally at ease mixing across the racial divide and with non-Malays, whom he saw as a threat to the concept of Malay Supremacy outlined in his NEP and the Malayan constitution. Razak wasn’t obsessed with loyalty. For him the most important question was simple – can the young people do the job?

Razak also acknowledged that such talent had to be subject to scrutiny and be accountable to the voters. In this respect he also insisted on drafting the young men into active politics – forcing them to be responsive to the ballot box and popular sentiments.

Razak understood that power resided in the Malay community and that for this power to be wielded effectively, the elite among the Malays had to be an elite determined by ability, aptitude and commitment to the nation as a whole. Class, birth and money were secondary in his calculations.

As a consequence of this initiative, the then young leaders of mixed heritage in UMNO, such as Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad (whose father was an Indian immigrant), were drafted into higher echelons of the political establishment.

[edit] Death

Due in part to leukemia, Abdul Razak died on January 14, 1976 while seeking medical treatment in London. He was posthumously granted the soubriquet Bapa Pembangunan (Father of Development). He is laid to rest in Heroes Mausoleum near Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur..........

[edit] Family

Tun Abdul Razak was descended from a long line of Pahang chieftains of Bugis descent.[2][3] He was the brother in law of Tun Hussein Onn, his successor as Prime Minister.

Abdul Razak's eldest son, Najib Tun Razak, became the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia under Abdullah Badawi in 2004. He has four other sons, Datuk Ahmad Johari Razak, Mohamed Nizam, Mohamed Nazim and Mohamed Nazir.

[edit] Awards and Recognition

[edit] Awards

[edit] References

  1. ^ 1967 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership - Tun Abdul Razak
  2. ^ Anak Gemilang Malaysia

Preceded by

Deputy Prime Ministers of Malaysia

Succeeded by
Ismail Abdul Rahman

Preceded by
Tunku Abdul Rahman

Prime Ministers of Malaysia

Succeeded by
Hussein Onn



Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Razak"

Categories: 1922 births | 1976 deaths | Buginese Malaysians | Prime Ministers of Malaysia | Deputy Prime Ministers of Malaysia | Government ministers of Malaysia | Malaysian politicians | Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George | Malay Malaysians | Malaysian Muslims | People from Pahang

Hidden category: Template computed age




20081021 Lim Hong See  www.huatuan.com/hongsee